GATE XE – Syllabus – Section wise

XE-A and Aptitude is mandatory. Any 2 subject can be answered from XE-B , XE-C , XE-D , XE-E , XE-F , XE-G , XE-H

Paper Pattern

GATE 2021 XE-B Fluid Mechanics Syllabus

Section 1: Flow and Fluid PropertiesFluid Properties: Density, viscosity, surface tension, relationship between stress and strain-rate for Newtonian fluids.Classification of Flows: Viscous versus inviscid flows, incompressible versus compressible flows, internal versus external flows, steady versus unsteady flows, laminar versus turbulent flows, 1-D, 2-D and 3-D flows, Newtonian versus non-Newtonian fluid flow.Hydrostatics: Buoyancy, manometry, forces on submerged bodies and its stability.
Section 2: KinematicsEulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluid motion.Concept of local, convective and material derivatives. Streamline, streakline, pathline and timeline. 
Section 3: Integral AnalysisReynolds Transport Theorem (RTT) for conservation of mass, linear and angular momentum.
Section 4: Differential AnalysisDifferential equations of mass and momentum for incompressible flows.Inviscid flows – Euler equations and viscous flows – Navier-Stokes equations.Concept of fluid rotation, vorticity, stream function and circulation.Exact solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for Couette flow and Poiseuille flow, thin film flow.
Section 5: Dimensional AnalysisConcept of geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarity.Buckingham Pi theorem and its applications.Non-dimensional parameters and their physical significance – Reynolds number, Froude number and Mach number.
Section 6: Internal FlowsFully developed pipe flow.Empirical relations for laminar and turbulent flows: friction factor, Darcy-Weisbach relation and Moody’s chart.Major and minor losses.
Section 7: Bernoulli’s Equation and its Applications, Potential FlowsBernoulli’s equation: Assumptions and applications.Flow measurements – Venturi meter, Pitot-static tube and orifice meter.Elementary potential flows: Velocity potential function.Uniform flow, source, sink and vortex, and their superposition for flow past simple geometries.
Section 8: External FlowsPrandtl boundary layer equations: Concept and assumptions.Boundary layer characteristics: Boundary layer thickness, displacement thickness and momentum thickness.Qualitative idea of boundary layer separation, streamlined and bluff bodies, and drag and lift forces.

GATE 2021 XE-C Materials Science Syllabus

Section 1: Classification and Structure of MaterialsClassification of materials: metals, ceramics, polymers and composites.Nature of bonding in materials: metallic, ionic, covalent and mixed bonding; the structure of materials: fundamentals of crystallography, symmetry operations, crystal systems, Bravais lattices, unit cells, primitive cells, crystallographic planes and directions; structures of metals, ceramics, polymers, amorphous materials and glasses.Defects in crystalline materials: 0-D, 1-D and 2-D defects; vacancies, interstitials, solid solutions in metals and ceramics, Frenkel and Schottky defects; dislocations; grain boundaries, twins, stacking faults; surfaces and interfaces.
Section 2:  Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Phase TransformationsExtensive and intensive thermodynamic properties, laws of thermodynamics, phase equilibria, phase rule, phase diagrams (unary and binary), basic electrochemistry.Reaction kinetics, fundamentals of diffusion, Fick’s laws, their solutions and applications.Solidification of pure metals and alloys, nucleation and growth, diffusional solid-state phase transformations (precipitation and eutectoid), martensitic transformation.
Section 3: Properties and Applications of MaterialsMechanical properties of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites at room temperature; stress-strain response (elastic, anelastic and plastic deformation).Electronic properties: free electron theory, Fermi energy, the density of states, elements of band theory, semiconductors, Hall effect, dielectric behaviour, piezo- and ferroelectric behaviour.Magnetic Properties: Origin of magnetism in materials, para-, dia-, Ferro- and ferri-magnetism.Thermal properties: Specific heat, heat conduction, thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion, and thermoelectricity.Optical properties: Refractive index, absorption and transmission of electromagnetic radiation.Examples of materials exhibiting the above properties, and their typical/common applications.
Section 4: Characterization and Measurements of PropertiesX-ray diffraction; spectroscopic techniques such as UV-Vis, IR and Raman; optical microscopy, electron microscopy, composition analysis in electron microscopes.Tensile test, hardness measurement.Electrical conductivity, carrier mobility and concentrations.Thermal analysis techniques: thermogravimetry and calorimetry.
Section 5: Processing of MaterialsHeat treatment of ferrous and aluminium alloys; preparation of ceramic powders, sintering; thin film deposition: evaporation and sputtering techniques, and chemical vapour deposition, thin-film growth phenomena.
Section 6: Degradation of MaterialsCorrosion and its prevention; embrittlement of metals; polymer degradation.

GATE 2021 XE-D Solid Mechanics Syllabus

Section 1: Mechanics of rigid bodiesEquivalent force systems; free-body diagrams; equilibrium equations; analysis of determinate trusses and frames; friction; principle of minimum potential energy; particle kinematics and dynamics; dynamics of rigid bodies under planar motion; law of conservation of energy; law of conservation of momentum.
Section 2: Mechanics of deformable bodiesStresses and strains; transformation of stresses and strains, principal stresses and strains; Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain; generalized Hooke’s Law; elastic constants; thermal stresses; theories of failure.Axial force, shear force and bending moment diagrams; axial, shear and bending stresses; combined stresses; deflection (for symmetric bending); torsion in circular shafts; thin-walled pressure vessels; energy methods (Castigliano’s Theorems); Euler buckling.
Section 3: VibrationsFree vibration of undamped single degree of freedom systems. 

GATE 2021 XE-E Thermodynamics Syllabus

Section 1: Basic ConceptContinuum and macroscopic approach; thermodynamic systems (closed and open); thermodynamic properties and equilibrium; state of a system, state postulate for simple compressible substances, state diagrams, paths and processes on state diagrams; concepts of heat and work, different modes of work; zeroth law of thermodynamics; the concept of temperature.
Section 2: First Law of ThermodynamicsConcept of energy and various forms of energy; internal energy, enthalpy; specific heats; first law applied to elementary processes, closed systems and control volumes, steady and unsteady flow analysis.
Section 3: Second Law of ThermodynamicsLimitations of the first law of thermodynamics, concepts of heat engines and heat pumps/refrigerators, Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements and their equivalence; reversible and irreversible processesCarnot cycle and Carnot principles/theorems; thermodynamic temperature scaleClausius inequality and concept of entropy; microscopic interpretation of entropy, the principle of increase of entropyT-s diagrams; second law analysis of control volume; availability and irreversibility; third law of thermodynamics.
Section 4: Properties of Pure SubstancesThermodynamic properties of pure substances in solid, liquid and vapor phasesP-vT behaviour of simple compressible substances, phase rule, thermodynamic property tables and charts, ideal and real gases, ideal gas equation of state and van der Waals equation of state; law of corresponding states, compressibility factor and generalized compressibility chart.
Section 5: Thermodynamic RelationsT-ds relations, Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, Gibbs relationsMaxwell relations, Joule-Thomson coefficient, coefficient of volume expansion, adiabatic and isothermal compressibilities, Clapeyron and Clapeyron-Clausius equations.
Section 6: Thermodynamic CyclesCarnot vapour cycle, ideal Rankine cycleRankine reheats cycle, air-standard Otto cycle, air-standard Diesel cycle, air-standard Brayton cycle, vapour-compression refrigeration cycle.
Section 7: Ideal Gas MixturesDalton’s and Amagat’s laws, properties of ideal gas mixtures, air-water vapour mixtures and simple thermodynamic processes involving them; specific and relative humidities, dew point and wet bulb temperature, adiabatic saturation temperature, psychrometric chart.

GATE 2021 XE-F Polymer Science and Engineering Syllabus

Section 1: Chemistry of High PolymersMonomers, functionality, degree of polymerizations, classification of polymers, glass transition, melting transition, criteria for rubberiness, polymerization methods: addition and condensation; their kinetics, metallocene polymers and other newer methods of polymerization, copolymerization, monomer reactivity ratios and its significance, kinetics, different copolymers, random, alternating, azeotropic copolymerization, block and graft copolymers, techniques for polymerization-bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion.Concept of intermolecular order (morphology) – amorphous, crystalline, orientation states. Factor affecting crystallinity. Crystalline transition. Effect of morphology on polymer properties.
Section 2: Polymer CharacterizationSolubility and swelling, concept of average molecular weight, determination of number average, weight average, viscosity average and Z-average molecular weights, polymer crystallinity, analysis of polymers using IR, XRD, thermal (DSC, DMTA, TGA), microscopic (optical and electronic) techniques.
Section 3: Synthesis, Manufacturing, and PropertiesCommodity and general purpose thermoplastics: PE, PP, PS, PVC, Polyesters, Acrylic, PU polymers.Engineering Plastics: Nylon, PC, PBT, PSU, PPO, ABS, Fluoropolymers Thermosetting polymers: Polyurethane, PF, MF, UF, Epoxy, Unsaturated polyester, Alkyds. Natural and synthetic rubbers: Recovery of NR hydrocarbon from latex; SBR, Nitrile, CR, CSM, EPDM, IIR, BR, Silicone, TPE, Speciality plastics: PEK, PEEK, PPS, PSU, PES etc. Biopolymers such as PLA, PHA/PHB.
Section 4: Polymer Blends and CompositesDifference between blends and composites, their significance, choice of polymers for blending, blend miscibility-miscible and immiscible blends, thermodynamics, phase morphology, polymer alloys, polymer eutectics, plastic-plastic, rubber-plastic and rubber-rubber blends, FRP, particulate, long and short fibre reinforced composites.
Section 5: Polymer TechnologyPolymer compounding-need and significance, different compounding ingredients for rubber and plastics (Antioxidants, Light stabilizers, UV stabilizers, Lubricants, Processing aids, Impact modifiers, Flame retardant, antistatic agents.PVC stabilizers and Plasticizers) and their function, use of carbon black, polymer mixing equipment, cross-linking and vulcanization, vulcanization kinetics.
Section 6: Polymer RheologyFlow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, different flow equations, dependence of shear modulus on temperature, molecular/segmental deformations at different zones and transitionsMeasurements of rheological parameters by capillary rotating, parallel plate, cone-plate rheometer. Viscoelasticity-creep and stress relaxations, mechanical models, control of rheological characteristics through compounding, rubber curing in parallel plate viscometer, ODR and MDR. 
Section 7: Polymer ProcessingCompression molding, transfer molding, injection molding, blow molding, reaction injection molding, extrusion, pultrusion, calendaring, rotational molding, thermoforming, rubber processing in two-roll mill, internal mixer. 
Section 8: Polymer TestingMechanical-static and dynamic tensile, flexural, compressive, abrasion, endurance, fatigue, hardness, tear, resilience, impact, toughnessConductivity-thermal and electrical, dielectric constant, dissipation factor, power factor, electric resistance, surface resistivity, volume resistivity, swelling, ageing resistance, environmental stress cracking resistance. 
Section 9: Polymer Recycling and Waste ManagementPolymer waste, and its impact on environment, Sources, Identification and Separation techniques, recycling classification, recycling of thermoplastics, thermosets and rubbers, applications of recycled materials.Life cycle assessment of polymer products (case studies like PET bottles, packaging bags) 

GATE 2021 XE-G Food Technology Syllabus

Food technology is a branch of food science that deals with the production processes that make foods.

  • Food Chemistry and Nutrition
  • Food Microbiology
  • Food Products Technology
  • Food Engineering

GATE 2021 XE-H Atmospheric & Ocean Science Syllabus

Section A: Atmospheric ScienceVertical Structure and Composition of the Atmosphere; Blackbody Radiation and Radiation Balance; Modes of Heat Transfer in the Atmosphere; Greenhouse Effect; Cloud Types; Laws of Thermodynamics; Gas Laws; Hydrostatic Equation; Clausius Clapeyron Equation; Adiabatic Processes, Humidity in the Atmosphere, Atmospheric Stability; Weather and Climate.Navier-Stokes and Continuity Equations; Compressible and Incompressible Fluids; Pressure Gradient, Centripetal, Centrifugal and Coriolis Forces; Geostrophic, Gradient and Cyclostrophic Balances; Circulations and Vorticity, General Circulation of the Atmosphere. Broad Features of Indian Monsoons, Monsoon Depressions; Tropical Convergence Zones; Tropical Cyclones.
Section B: Ocean ScienceVertical Profiles of Temperature and Salinity; Stability and Double Diffusion; Equation of State, Equations for Conservation of Mass, Momentum, Heat and Salt; Inertial Currents; Geostrophic Motion; Air-Sea Surface Fluxes; Wind-driven Circulation, Ekman and Sverdrup Transports; Storm Surges, Tides, Tsunamis and Wind Waves; Eddies and Gyres; Eastern and Western Boundary Currents, Equatorial Currents, Indian Ocean Current Systems; Thermohaline Circulation.Chemical Properties of Seawater, Major and Minor Elements, Ocean Acidification, Biochemical Cycling of Nutrients, Trace Metals and Organic Matter. Biological Pump; Primary and Secondary Biological Productivity; Air-sea Exchange of Biogenic Dissolved Gases; Marine Ecology.

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